The quake struck 15km (about nine miles) southeast of the Aegean coastal town of Bodrum, at a depth of 10km, the USGS said.
It was not immediately clear whether there were any injuries.
According to Turkey’s Disaster and Emergency Management agency, the earthquake, which struck just before 11am (0800 GMT), had a preliminary magnitude of 4.9.
Residents of Izmir, Turkey’s third largest city, felt light tremors from the earthquake.
“We shook throughout the night, again very heavily this morning,” one witness told Reuters via telephone.
“I put on my shoes and went into another room and it was shaking the entire time, it lasted a long time.”
Bodrum is a popular resort among Turks and foreigners on holidays during the summer.
The quake comes a month after two people were killed and more than 200 injured after a powerful earthquake struck off the coast of Bodrum and the Greek island of Kos, triggering a tsunami.
In June, a powerful 6.3 magnitude quake struck Turkey’s western coast and the Greek island of Lesbos, killing one person and rattling buildings from the Turkish province of Izmir to the Greek capital of Athens.